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Overview of Superconductive Electromagnetic Engine
─ To first-time visitors ─
I would like to clearly describe an overview of the superconductive electromagnetic engine.
Warning to people who built Flying object like UFO
with superconductive electromagnetic engines
The superconductive electromagnetic engine, too, must do exhaust of heat like ordinary engines.
The superconductive electromagnetic engine can absorb reaction as the energy of antiparallel motion of electrons of a Cooper pair.
However, if the volume of absorption is too big,
There is possibility that an accident may happen by the release of heat energy when the superconductive magnet of
the engines change into normal conducive condition.
And, the limit of accumulation of reaction is Fermi energy.
I recommend you to change the superconductive magnet into normal conducive condition periodically
and periodically do the exhaust of heat from the antiparallel motion.
There is a way to return to normal conducting state temporarily.
It is a known fact that superconductive state is destroyed by the alternating current of high frequency.
Not the ripple current, an alternating current is thrown temporarily to a superconductive electromagnetic engine.
The frequency of the alternating current shall be higher than the ripple current.
The voltage of the alternating current shall be higher than the ripple current.
In this case, it is supposed that not only heat but also light is given off.
The superconductive electromagnetic engine uses the magnetic field of the ripple current.
An electromagnetic wave occurs by this magnetic field of the ripple current pulsating.
Because bad influence might occur on the health of the human bodies
when they continue taking this electromagnetic wave for a long term,
laborer cutting off the electromagnetic wave will be necessary.
You should protect the crew with electromagnetic shields and so on.
☆ You who want to know more about the strict theory and detailed structure of the superconductive electromagnetic engine had better see "Research on Momentum Order ".
☆ You who want to know more detailed or supplementary explanations about the superconductive electromagnetic engine or flying bodies like UFO had better see "Plain Description of Superconductive Electromagnetic Engine".
All figures are concept figures, which do not reflect actual sizes precisely.
◇Basic structure of superconductive electromagnetic engine
First, the structure and characteristics of the superconductive electromagnetic engine are described. The superconductive electromagnetic engine is the one of two piled up electromagnets (magnet of a wire rolled like a ring and an electric current is passed to it). The one of two electromagnets is a normal-conductive electromagnet rolled only once. Another is a superconductive magnet. Two electromagnets are firmly fixed not to be separate. A special kind of electric current is passed through the normal-conductive electromagnet. An eternal electric current flows through the superconductive magnet in a superconductive condition.
Basic structure of the electromagnetic engine
and function of usual electromagnet
Characteristic function of the electromagnetic engine
Next, apart from the superconductive electromagnetic engine, let's think of a case to put an equipment of two ordinary electromagnets fixed each other on a desk and to pass electric currents to them. Since electric currents are passed, magnetic fields occur and magnetic force acts between two electromagnets. According to the law of action and reaction, the direction of the magnetic force to act on one electromagnet and the direction of the magnetic force to act on another electromagnet should be opposite and their strength should be same. Since the forces whose directions are opposite and strength is same act on one equipment, they deny each other and this equipment doesn't move in the nature of things. However, if an effect like denial of one of magnetic forces by some mechanism occurs, how will it be? Then, only a magnetic force of one direction acts on this equipment. At this equipment, a force with some strength acts in one direction. If the direction of this force is upward and stronger than the gravity which acts on the equipment, this equipment will move upward. Since it moves upward against the gravity, it can be said an antigravity equipment is realized.
Like this, the mechanism which makes the effect that one of two magnetic forces is denied works in the superconductive electromagnetic engine (× mark in figure 2-2). As for it, of course, the refutation that it is impossible as contrary to the law of action and reaction is thought of. However, the superconductive electromagnetic engine is the invention which was devised to make such mechanism with following the law of action and reaction.
Will such a thing be possible? I think you will think so. From now, the mechanism which can realize it is described.
Fleming's left hand rule
First, when putting an electromagnet in a magnetic field and passing an electric current to it, the relation between Lorentz force to act on electrons and the magnetic force to act on the electromagnet is described. Since the electric current is flowing through the electromagnet, a lot of electrons are moving in the magnetic field. On each electron of the current, Lorentz force acts according to Fleming's left hand rule. Electrons are moved by the Lorentz force. For your information, the strength of Lorentz force to act on an electron is proportional to the strength of magnetic field and the motion speed of the electron. Electrons receive impulse ( force × time ) in the direction perpendicular to the direction through which the electric current flows according to Fleming's left hand rule and have momentum ( mass × speed ). Electrons receive force during definite time and the force changes into momentum ( mass × speed ). Also, since an electric current is flowing, of course, the electrons have momentum in the direction which the electric current flows through. Of the momentum of two directions, the momentum in the direction which the electric current flows is substance of the electric current. The momentum in the other direction perpendicular to the direction in which the electric current flows through is source of the magnetic force. The electrons move in this vertical direction and bumps against material of the electromagnet. At this time, the momentum of the electrons becomes the force to act on the material of the electromagnet. Since each of the electrons receives Lorentz force, each electron bumps against the material and make the force act on the material. Total of the force that this each electron make act on the material is substance of the magnetic force which act on the electromagnets.
Presupposing above explanations of magnetic force, the mechanism of the superconductive electromagnetic engine is described. Also, on electrons of electric currents which flow through two electromagnets of a superconductive electromagnetic engine, of course, Lorentz force acts. Based on the Lorentz force to act on the normal-conductive electromagnet of two electromagnets, the magnetic force acts on this normal-conductive electromagnet. This magnetic force becomes driving force of the super electromagnetic engine. Lorentz force acts on electrons of an eternal electric current which flows through the other electromagnet, the superconductive magnet, according to the law of action and reaction, too. This is same with the equipment of ordinary electromagnets. Therefore, the superconductive electromagnetic engine isn't against the law of action and reaction. However, under such circumstances, the magnetic force occurs, based on Lorentz force. Lorentz force changes into momentum, and it gives force to the material of the superconductive magnet and the magnetic force occurs. However, in superconductive magnets, it is possible to make the mechanism to prevent it work. It is possible to make the mechanism that prevents Lorentz force acting on electrons from changing into momentum work. An invention to have this mechanism is the superconductive electromagnetic engine.
◇ Principle of the superconductive electromagnetic engine
Before the mechanism which prevents Lorentz force to act on electrons from changing into momentum is explained, an eternal electric current which flows through a superconductive magnet is described. Electrons of an eternal electric current composes electron pairs. Then, the sizes of momentums which centers of gravity of electron pairs have as a whole are same. As far as it is in a superconductive condition, electron pairs are composed and the sizes of momentums which centers of gravity of electron pairs have as a whole are same. If saying technically, in a superconductive condition, it is possible to assume that Bose-Einstein condensation is formed. In other words, in a superconductive condition, the sizes of momentums which centers of gravity of electron pairs composing an eternal electric current have as a whole must be same. Then, when the sizes of momentums which center of gravity of electron pairs change, they must change all together from a same size to another same size (momentum order). I say it in reverse. When the sizes of momentums which centers of gravity of electron pairs have as a whole change, regulation to make them change all together from a same size to another same size works in order to make the sizes of momentums which centers of gravity of electron pairs have as a whole same. (Regulation of momentum order)
At the superconductive electromagnetic engine, the regulation of this momentum order works, and the mechanism which prevents Lorentz force to act on electron pairs from changing into momentum works. Let's ascertain this at a superconductive electromagnetic engine.
◇Superconductive electromagnetic engine and ripple current of very high frequency
First, before passing the electric current to a normal-conductive electromagnet of the superconductive electromagnetic engine, a superconductive magnet of the engine is supposed to be in a superconductive condition and function as a magnet. At this time, an eternal electric current is flowing through the superconductive magnet. And, in the direction which electron pairs of the eternal electric current flow through, electron pairs are in a condition that they have momentum with completely same size. Let's pass the electric current to the normal-conductive electromagnet of this engine.
Waveform of ripple current (blue line)
Next, the electric current to be passed through the normal-conductive electromagnet taking a round and composing the engine is described. This electric current is a ripple current. The ripple current is rectified from an alternate current and an electric current which flows only one-way intermittently. Moreover, a ripple current of very high frequency whose wavelength agrees with the length of a round of the ring (length of a round of the superconductive magnet = length of a round of the normal-conductive electromagnet) is passed. If calculating, it becomes a frequency of VHF. A magnetic field made by this ripple current makes electromagnetic force act on the eternal electric current flowing through the superconductive magnet. That is, the field makes Lorentz force act on electron pairs composing the eternal electric current.
Let's think about the magnetic field which the ripple current flowing through the normal-conductive electromagnet of the engine makes. Strength of a magnetic field made by an electric current is proportional to strength of the electric current. Then, a ripple current makes a magnetic field whose strength is proportional to the height of the ripple current in the direction of Y-axis. Since a ripple current flows intermittently, height of its waveform is zero at a half part. Strength of the magnetic field made by the part is zero. Well, how will be the strength of the magnetic field made by the ripple current flowing through the normal-conductive electromagnet on the ring of the superconductive magnet? The strength is proportional to the strength of the ripple current on the ring of the superconductive magnet. Here, the fact that the ripple current flowing through the normal-conductive electromagnet has very high frequency whose wavelength agrees with the length of one round of the ring takes the meaning. Since the relation, "the wavelength of the ripple current≒the length of a round of the superconductive magnet = the length of a round of normal-conductive electromagnet", is formed, the ripple current flowing on the ring of the superconductive magnet is always equal to approximately one wavelength of the ripple current. Half of one wavelength of the ripple current is zero strength. The strength of the magnetic field made by the part of this zero strength is zero. That is, the strength of the magnetic field made by the ripple current on the ring of the superconductive magnet always becomes zero in the half part. Since the strength of Lorentz force to act on electrons is proportional to the strength of the magnetic field, it becomes approximately zero in the half part of the ring of the superconductive magnet. When seeing the whole ring of the superconductive magnet, the strength of the magnetic field to act on electron pairs which exists in each part of the superconductive magnet differs from zero to the maximum height of the ripple current. Lorentz force whose strength is different according to the strength of the different part of the magnetic field acts on electron pairs.
Therefore, the momentum order and its regulation take the meaning. How will it be, if Lorentz force with different strength changes into momentum just as it is? Electron pairs would have momentums with different sizes in the direction perpendicular to the direction which the electric current flows through. Since they have momentum with a same size in the direction which the electric current flows through, momentums which centers of gravity of electron pairs as a whole would have different sizes. Under present condition, momentum order isn't formed. Then, the regulation of momentum order works and makes sizes of momentums which centers of gravity of electron pairs have same. Therefore, the regulation which makes changes of the sizes of momentums which centers of gravity of electron pairs have same works. As a result, strength of Lorentz force takes the meaning. Only changes which match the sizes of momentums of electron pairs with a minimum size (actually quantized and being a momentum of integral multiple of a minimum unit) of an electron pair which received Lorentz force have take place. If saying in reverse, since changes of sizes of momentum which match with a minimum size in all electron pairs take place, momentum order is preserved. Then, since changes of sizes of momentum which match with a minimum size take place, changes of momentums which should have take place and did not take place actually exists. Magnetic force should have been made by these changes of momentums which did not take place actually, too. This magnetic force which should have been made does not take place. In this way, as a result of fact that the magnetic force which should have be made does not take place, magnetic force to act on the normal-conductive magnet becomes considerably stronger than magnetic force to act on the superconductive magnet. Therefore, the magnetic force to act on the superconductive magnet is taken from the magnetic force which acts on the normal-conductive electromagnet and remains of the magnetic force can be used as driving force.
By the way, how will part of Lorentz force to have acted on electron pairs but not to have changed into momentum become? Of course, since it follows physical principles, it hasn't disappeared. This useless impulse does not change into momentums which centers of gravity of electron pairs have and changes into energy of not electron pairs but each electron composing electron pairs. I think that specifically the energy is the one of antiparallel motion of each electron and one of vibration of each electron. Since motion of center of gravity cannot be moved, I think that it changes into the increase of energy of antiparallel motion and vibration of each electron which can be moved. Then, I think that this energy will be slipped outside finally as heat energy through scattering of electrons.
I think that main reason why the superconductive electromagnetic engine functions was understood. From here, I would say a different story from purely theoretical story so far.
◇Use of my invention
First, I would describe use of the superconductive electromagnetic engine. The engine is fixed on the frame of vehicles to convey the driving force of the engine to the vehicles and move them. I show the figure which has an image of launching an object by the engine as an example. The engine is touched at the bottom of the object and fixed to the object. Upward magnetic force by engine is supposed to be "F". Force of the object given by the engine is supposed to be "f". The engine receives normal force " T " as reaction against giving force to the object.
Use of superconductive electromagnetic engine
The force to act on this equipment by the engine: P
By the law of action and reaction
After all, the whole force P equals to F.
When this F is stronger than the gravity which acts on mass of the whole equipment, this equipment can be launched above.
◇Structure of my invention
Floor plan from above
to see a superconductive electromagnetic engine
[ Explanation of the mark ]
1: normal conductor
2: ripple current power supply
5: superconductive magnet
Side view which shows a superconductive electromagnetic engine
Next, let's see the realistic structure of a superconductive electromagnetic engine. Refer to figure 6 and figure 7. As I showed at first, it has a structure that a superconductive magnet and an electromagnet (normal-conductive body 1) taking a round are piled up and fixed. Here, pay attention to the normal-conductive electromagnet taking only a round. In spite of only taking a round, its size is big and almost equal to the superconductive magnet (5). It is because the engine uses thick iron for the normal-conductive electromagnet. This has three merits.
Merit 1: Since it is thick iron, its electric resistance is small, and its consumption of electric power is small.
Merit 2: Since this iron is solid and thick, it is tough. Since it is tough, it is suitable for conveying strong driving force of the superconductive electromagnetic engine to the hull.
Merit 3: Since electric resistance is small, even if a strong ripple current is passed, voltage is low. Since voltage is low, power of wave motion of the magnetic field made by the ripple current is weak and bad influence worried about on the superconductive magnet when power of wave motion is strong doesn't take place.
◇ Feature of my invention
Let's see characteristics of the superconductive electromagnetic engine as an engine. I specifically point and describe merits which make the engine more excellent than conventional engines.
1. Very strong driving force and easiness of control of driving force
By controlling the strength of the ripple current passed to the engine, any driving force from weak strength to more than tens-of-thousands-of ton strength can be gotten. Strength of driving force of the engine can be changed by changing strength of the magnetic field of the superconductive magnet, strength of the ripple current, the size of the superconductive magnet and the normal-conductive electromagnet. Then, driving force with a wide range of strength can be gotten. Also, by reversing the direction of the flowing ripple current, the direction of the driving force can be reversed by 180 degree. Since it controls the driving force by controlling the electric current, the ripple current, the control of the driving force is easy and it can stably supply driving force with constant value. More than one superconductive electromagnetic engine can be used by combining them and by this, stronger driving force can be gotten. Also, by electronic control of several superconductive electromagnetic engines, change of orbit by 360 degree becomes possible.
2. Excellent in safety, reliability and stillness
Since it doesn't burn and jet out propellant, and it directly changes electromagnetic power into driving force and doesn't do burning, it is safe. Since structure of the engine itself is simple, it functions stably and its maintenance is easy. If its principle is confirmed, it functions stably based on the physical principles. Also, since it doesn't burn propellant but directly changes electric energy into driving force, the engine is excellent in stillness.
3. Excellent in cost performance, durability and efficiency.
The contradicting fact that the biggest freight which a rocket carries to space is propellant" is not applicable to the engine. Because it is based on changing electromagnetic power into driving force and the denial of reaction, doesn't jet out propellant, and propellant is unnecessary for the engine. Since it doesn't need propellant, it is very excellent in cost performance. Also, since it uses electricity as energy source for driving force by supplying electricity from power generator, stable driving force can be continuously gotten for a long time. Efficiency compared with other engines is described. As for theoretical value of driving force of the engine is shown in chapter 7 of "Plain Description of Superconductive Electromagnetic Engine". In spite of using severe figures such as electric resistivity of iron for calculation, wonderful results are there. The electromagnetic engine changes electromagnetic power into driving force directly. And, it uses a superconductive magnet which can maintain a mighty magnetic field with low consumption of electric power. If the engine is realized, I think that its efficiency is much more excellent than conventional engines and that is theoretically self evident from these things. Also, if the principle of the engine is confirmed, there is not an element which changes theoretical values in a large way.
4. Easiness of reuse and building manned spaceships
In consequence of its structure, the engine need not to be thrown away after using it like rocket engines. In many times, the engine can be used repeatedly. Manned spaceships which can go and return in many times from the earth to space can be easily built from above three characteristics. Since the spaceships can descend slowly getting antigravity by the engines when returning from space, the heat-resistant tile used by space shuttles is unnecessary. The spaceship which can fly repeatedly like airplanes can be easily built.
5. Combination with traditional engines
Let's take examples for combination with traditional engines. Highly efficient airplanes which go ahead with jet engines and have superconductive electromagnetic engines by which getting flotage and doing vertical taking off and landing can be realized. A highly efficient unmanned explorer which is equipped with one superconductive electromagnetic engine as a main engine and does posture control and turns and so on by using conventional engines for space can be realized.
The superconductive electromagnetic engine of above good features can realize dream technologies such as air-cars and air-bikes, flying trains, flying bodies like UFO and new manned spaceships and so on.
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